A reference is a list of books, magazines, newspapers, and electronic sources you specifically used to create your paper. The Modern Language Association (MLA) developed strict guidelines on citing work used in research papers.
â€¢ Location: Place the Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper.
â€¢ Tile: Place at the top of the page and center the words Works Cited.
â€¢ Line spacing: Use single space with in an entry and double between citations.
â€¢ Format: Indent all text but the first line of each citation one half-inch using five spaces or your computerâ€™s hanging indent feature.
â€¢ Order: List works in alphabetical order by author or title if author is unknown.
Basic Format: First or New Editions
Titles of books are italicized or underlined. The basic format is:
Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
Shaw, Eva. Writing and Selling Magazine Articles. New York: Marlowe & Company, 1985.
Shaw, Eva. Writing and Selling Magazine Articles. 2nd ed. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1992.
Two or More Authors
List authors in the order they appear on title page. The citation begins with the first authorâ€™s last name:
Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.
Or list the first author followed by et al.:
Clancy, Tom, et al. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.
List the author as the committee or group that commissioned the work.
American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Charles B. Clayman. New York: Random, 1989.
The Times Atlas of the World. 5th ed. New York: New York Times. 1975.
Anthology or Collection
Misner, Ivan R. and Don Morgan, eds. Masters of Success: Proven Techniques for Achieving Success in Business and Life. Canada: Eliot House Productions, 2004.
An Essay or Work in an Anthology or Collection
Cousins, Christopher. â€œRod Jones: 15,000 Reasons to Follow Your Passion.â€ Masters of Success: Proven Techniques for Achieving Success in Business and Life. Ed. Misner, Ivan R. and Don Morgan. Canada: Eliot House Productions, 2004. 16-18.
Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Trans. H. E. Butler. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.
Article in a Newspaper or Magazine
Article titles are placed in quotes. The basic format is:
Lastname, Firstname. â€œTitle of Article.â€ Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages.
Gawande, Atul. â€œThe Man Who Couldnâ€™t Stop Eating.â€ New Yorker 9 Jul. 2001: 66-75.
An Article in a Scholarly Journal
Indicate volume and issue for journals that restart page number with each issue. The basic format is:
Lastname, Firstname. â€œTitle of Article.â€ Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): pages.
Kralj, Mary M. â€œGetting out of the box.â€ Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 46.2 (1994): 27-28.
Electronic address, printed between carets (<, >). The basic format is:
Lastname, Firstname. â€œTitle of Article.â€ Name of Site. Date of Posting/Revision. Name of organization affiliated with the site. Date you accessed the site .
Kranz, Jonathan. â€œTen Key Questions for Your Web Copy.â€ MarketingProfs.com. 28 Nov 2006. MarketingProfs, LLC. 22 Jan 2007
Must indicate who wrote the message and who received the message. The basic format is:
Lastname, Firstname. â€œTitle of the message.â€ E-mail to personâ€™s name. Date of the message.
Freeman, Joseph. â€œWriting Case Studiesâ€ E-mail to Marie Roman. 15 Nov. 2000.
A Listserv or E-mail Discussion List Posting
Use authorâ€™s name or user name. Basic format is:
Lastname, Firstname. â€œTitle of Posting.â€ Online posting. Date material posted. Name of listserv. Date of access .
Hallman, Harry. â€œHow Do Consumer Brands Sell To Retailers?â€ Online posting. 12 Jan 2007. MarketingProfs.com Know-How Exchange. 22 Jan 2007 < http://www.marketingprofs.com/ea/qst_question.asp?qstID=16503>.
harry21. â€œHow Do Consumer Brands Sell To Retailers?â€ Online posting. 12 Jan 2007. MarketingProfs.com Know-How Exchange. 22 Jan 2007 < http://www.marketingprofs.com/ea/qst_question.asp?qstID=16503>.
MLA Style Crib Sheet http://www.docstyles.com/mlacrib.htm â€¢ OWL Materials: MLA Formatting and Style Guide http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/01/ â€¢ Assembling a List of Works Cited in Your Paper http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/cite/works_cited.htm