How to Write a Reference

Posted by admin on August 9, 2007 in Uncategorized |

A reference is a list of books, magazines, newspapers, and electronic sources you specifically used to create your paper. The Modern Language Association (MLA) developed strict guidelines on citing work used in research papers.

Guidelines

• Location: Place the Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper.
• Tile: Place at the top of the page and center the words Works Cited.
• Line spacing: Use single space with in an entry and double between citations.
• Format: Indent all text but the first line of each citation one half-inch using five spaces or your computer’s hanging indent feature.
• Order: List works in alphabetical order by author or title if author is unknown.

Books

Basic Format: First or New Editions

Titles of books are italicized or underlined. The basic format is:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

Shaw, Eva. Writing and Selling Magazine Articles. New York: Marlowe & Company, 1985.

Or:

Shaw, Eva. Writing and Selling Magazine Articles. 2nd ed. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1992.

Two or More Authors

List authors in the order they appear on title page. The citation begins with the first author’s last name:

Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.

Or list the first author followed by et al.:

Clancy, Tom, et al. Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special Forces. New York: Putnam, 2002.

Corporate Author

List the author as the committee or group that commissioned the work.

American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. Ed. Charles B. Clayman. New York: Random, 1989.

No Author

The Times Atlas of the World. 5th ed. New York: New York Times. 1975.

Anthology or Collection

Misner, Ivan R. and Don Morgan, eds. Masters of Success: Proven Techniques for Achieving Success in Business and Life. Canada: Eliot House Productions, 2004.

An Essay or Work in an Anthology or Collection

Cousins, Christopher. “Rod Jones: 15,000 Reasons to Follow Your Passion.” Masters of Success: Proven Techniques for Achieving Success in Business and Life. Ed. Misner, Ivan R. and Don Morgan. Canada: Eliot House Productions, 2004. 16-18.

Multivolume Work

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Trans. H. E. Butler. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980.

Periodicals

Article in a Newspaper or Magazine

Article titles are placed in quotes. The basic format is:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages.

Gawande, Atul. “The Man Who Couldn’t Stop Eating.” New Yorker 9 Jul. 2001: 66-75.

An Article in a Scholarly Journal

Indicate volume and issue for journals that restart page number with each issue. The basic format is:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): pages.

Kralj, Mary M. “Getting out of the box.” Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 46.2 (1994): 27-28.

Electronic Sources

Web Page

Electronic address, printed between carets (<, >). The basic format is:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” Name of Site. Date of Posting/Revision. Name of organization affiliated with the site. Date you accessed the site .

Kranz, Jonathan. “Ten Key Questions for Your Web Copy.” MarketingProfs.com. 28 Nov 2006. MarketingProfs, LLC. 22 Jan 2007
< http://www.marketingprofs.com/6/kranz19.asp>

E-mail

Must indicate who wrote the message and who received the message. The basic format is:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of the message.” E-mail to person’s name. Date of the message.

Freeman, Joseph. “Writing Case Studies” E-mail to Marie Roman. 15 Nov. 2000.

A Listserv or E-mail Discussion List Posting

Use author’s name or user name. Basic format is:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Posting.” Online posting. Date material posted. Name of listserv. Date of access .

Hallman, Harry. “How Do Consumer Brands Sell To Retailers?” Online posting. 12 Jan 2007. MarketingProfs.com Know-How Exchange. 22 Jan 2007 < http://www.marketingprofs.com/ea/qst_question.asp?qstID=16503>.

Or

harry21. “How Do Consumer Brands Sell To Retailers?” Online posting. 12 Jan 2007. MarketingProfs.com Know-How Exchange. 22 Jan 2007 < http://www.marketingprofs.com/ea/qst_question.asp?qstID=16503>.

Bibliography :
MLA Style Crib Sheet http://www.docstyles.com/mlacrib.htm • OWL Materials: MLA Formatting and Style Guide http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/557/01/ • Assembling a List of Works Cited in Your Paper http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/cite/works_cited.htm

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